Millennial Physics – Chapters One Through Seven
by Joseph S. Brown III
Copyright November 2005
Synopsis: This writing covers many areas of study within physics and physical chemistry. It discusses gravity, the origins of the universe and transmissions between stars. It creates a structure on which the future of physics can be supported. The writings do not discuss in-depth the qualities of antimatter and imaginary time, and do discuss atomic physics to integrate antimatter and imaginary time into other subjects.
Chapter One – Significant Moments
This presentation was written in the Significant Moment known as year 2005. What do I mean by the phrase Significant Moment? The word ‘Moment’ is defined as a period of time, which has an instant at which it begins, a duration, or a span of time, and an instant at which the Moment ends. ‘Significant’ relates this moment to any subject you are studying. By use of a defined beginning or ending instant, and its duration, the time constant used to define an event can greatly help express the event. A defined Significant Moment has both a specific beginning and a specific ending instant, and its duration is set along the real timeline. The use of a proper Significant Moment in descriptions of events in physics helps the researcher and the student to better grasp the meaning of events.
As an example, pretend you are giving a lecture on the erosion of a present day mountain range on Earth. If your description includes only Significant Moments that begin before the mountain range existed, then the lecture will not be a success. Significant Moments that begin within the larger moment when the mountains exist are better for almost all possible mountain range erosion issues.
If you select a scale of Significant Moment duration for your lecture on mountain range erosion that is not appropriate, then the lecture will also not be a success. If you choose to describe the erosion of the range and use a duration of one microsecond for the Significant Moments, then, by the time you have completed your description of the first year’s erosion, the audience of humans will have died of old age. Both duration and position of the Significant Moment in time will affect your ability to work with a physical event.
Scientific observation involves defining sequence and a logic of the progression of events. Only by following the most strict rules of logic can the scientist succeed. Pretend there is an uncooked chicken egg on the flat, horizontal surface of a table, and that the table is in the kitchen of my home. Pretend the egg has no unusual physical properties, and is in every way a typical chicken egg. Pretend you are not concerned about how the egg got there, and pretend you are first observing the egg as it is rolling toward the edge of the table. By my description, the first Significant Moment shall end at this instant, with the egg rolling. I will then change the duration of the Significant Moments within the description. For a Significant Moment with duration of one year, at the end of the first Significant Moment, the egg is rolling toward the table’s edge. At the end of the second Significant Moment, the egg has completely vanished.
What happened to the egg within that year? You are the scientist, and your audience wants to know. The answer, more often than not, is related to the social environment of the scientist. For scientists in some historical settings, the best-received explanation was that the egg was removed by neighboring barbarians; for other scientists in other times, it was magically removed by sorcerers and witches. Scientists could have concluded the egg was removed by the divine actions of God, while others scientists could declare the vanishing as workings of evil. Still others concluded that individuals from another planet visited my kitchen and removed the egg for their own needs. Each of these answers could have been valid for the moment when the scientist lived. Almost a century ago, my Grandfather returned from medical school and tried to explain the ‘new’ medical doctrine that connected bacteria to a large variety of illnesses, and he found it difficult to convince the community. Were my Grandfather alive in the Significant Moment year 2005, he would find his audience more receptive.
In the example of the egg, change the duration of the Significant Moment to a week. At the end of the first Significant Moment, the egg is rolling toward the table’s edge. At the end of the second Significant Moment, the egg has vanished. Some of the same conclusions are possible, yet some others are excluded. We know that George Washington, America’s first President could not have removed the egg, because he is dead. Vikings could not have discovered that the egg was here in my North American home, sailed their long ships to the shore, marched overland to my town, entered my house and taken the egg because they could not have arrived within a week, unless they had heard about the possibility of the egg’s rolling across the table – exposed to theft, and had sailed months before in anticipation.
Change the duration of the Significant Moment to a day. At the end of the first Significant Moment, the egg is rolling toward the table’s edge. At the end of the second Significant Moment, the egg has vanished. Some of the same conclusions are possible, yet more possible explanations are excluded.
Change the duration of the Significant Moment to an hour. At the end of the first Significant Moment, the egg is rolling toward the table’s edge. At the end of the second Significant Moment, the egg has vanished. Some of the same conclusions are possible, yet even more possible explanations are excluded.
Change the duration of the Significant Moment to five minutes. At the end of the first Significant Moment, the egg is rolling toward the table’s edge. At the end of the second Significant Moment, the empty shell of the egg is lying in shattered pieces on the floor. These sections of eggshell are scattered around the area of the floor where the egg would have landed if it had fallen off the table’s edge. Since events similar to this have been observed many times before, speculation and calculations of the simulated results allow you to conclude that the egg had fallen off the table and its shell may have broken when it hit the floor. But these speculations had also included results from such an impact upon the contents of the egg, and the contents were expected to also be present on the floor’s surface, and you observe they are not. Also, the shell fragments are not exactly in any arrangement expected by those who have guessed in the past what the array of shell fragments would be. The conclusion is that the egg fell to the floor, then, as it lay on the floor, extra-terrestrial wizards traveled in their Viking long ships at light speed from the moon to do God’s will by teleporting the contents of the egg to their laboratory, where they would grow nutrients and feed their starving children. Unfortunately, evil spirits interrupted the teleport and instead, delivered the egg’s contents to my neighbor’s home and onto his face, thus implicating him in a crime he did not commit. As the egg’s contents arrived in front of his face about to impact, George’s ghost appears and zaps the contents into another dimension to feed hungry ghosts, saving my neighbor from a difficult time explaining events. Since the neighbor was sleeping at the time, George’s appearance and the activities of the egg’s contents had not been detected; and since my neighbor is a barbarian, nobody would have believed him anyway. At the end of the third, five-minute-duration Significant Moment, the egg shell fragments are gone; still a mystery.
Change the duration of the Significant Moment to one minute. At the end of the first Significant Moment, the egg is rolling toward the table’s edge. At the end of the second Significant Moment, the shell of the egg is lying in shattered pieces on the floor. Amongst the shell fragments, the contents of the egg are observed. Models of the event from previous conclusions from viewing similar events allow you to conclude that the egg had fallen off the table and its shell had broken when it hit the floor. The fragments are in expected array, and the distribution of its contents also appears to support the conclusion. At the end of the third Significant Moment, my dog is lapping the contents of the egg off the floor. He has moved many of the fragments to get as much of the contents as he can. At the end of the fourth Significant Moment, my dog is carefully removing the last of the egg’s contents from the floor and from the shell’s fragments; my dog is very good at such efforts. At the end of the fifth Significant Moment, the floor and the shell fragments of the egg are clean of the egg’s contents, the shell fragments are arrayed on the floor in a pattern not indicated by the egg’s expected fall, and your conclusions now include the effects on the egg of its collision with the floor, and the dog’s removal of the contents. At the end of the sixth Significant Moment, my spouse is observed picking up the shell fragments. At the end of the seventh Significant Moment, my spouse is observed wiping up the dog’s tongue marks from the floor. At the end of the eighth Significant Moment, the floor is clean and as it was before the egg’s impact. Between the eighth and the tenth Significant Moment, there is no significant change in the scene.
By fabricating an example, I have tried to explain how science actually has worked for the last four thousand years. As prehistoric human gatherers were first able to conclude if they traveled into a certain part of the forest during a specific time of year, then the berries would be ripe, this type of science began, defining a Significant Moment of one year. The gatherers would develop an understanding of the berries until they could plan the planting of seeds and thus plan the harvest. As the first hunters were able to observe a moving herd of animals and conclude that if the hunters repositioned themselves in front of the herd, their chances of success were better, science expanded. Eventually the hunters could schedule the hunting group’s migration to match the herds’ travels. The most interesting part of this historical example is that the success of humans was advanced when these hunters removed the concepts of time from the tracking of wild herds, and began domestication of animals. Planting crops was more efficient than traveling to find them in the wild. As with the egg example, when we are able to shrink the duration of Significant Moments within which we see the physical activities of the universe, these processes become clearer and more detail is revealed.
Consider that light travels in real space at a very fast rate. We speak of its speed in miles or kilometers per second. There are areas of study where the moment required for light to travel the diameter of a single atom is too long to be useful. For humans in the Significant Moment year 2005, these small values are very hard to imagine. That is the reason I have formulated the concept of a Significant Moment. It liberates our imagination from trying to think about specific qualities of time. The expectation is that you will be better able to concentrate on the events if you can forget about any importance of specific time standards, like milliseconds or decades.
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