The Advent of Cells – Chapter Two

Chapter Two

Table of Contents   Summary   Chapter One  (hyperlinks to be added)

Within the set of years that is the history of the world, is a description of a moment when the shoreline of a sea is receding. More specifically, I state that for most subsets of the area of the globe, there existed a moment when that subset was beneath the sea’s surface, and then, during a subsequent moment was either lifted above the local sea level, or the sea’s level receded during that subsequent moment. After which, the revealed area remained above the sea for a length of time significant to the survey.

Those of us who have looked at rocks have determined that for some portion of history, virtually every part of the Earth was covered by an ocean or sea. The significance of this statement is that the domain of subsets of global surface area that qualifies for this Lattice is virtually the entire surface of the planet.

Within the above set, a subset occurs in which the speed of the change is uniform over a period of time. I hypothesize that within the subset, resides a set of areas in which the change of shoreline was sufficiently uniform during a period long enough to satisfy the requirements of the Lattice. The slowly receding sea results in the creation of a gently sloping, non-featured topography – a flat. To be specific, flat is defined as an area belonging to the set described above, and of the subset containing all areas formed by the action of waves. Thus, if for a specified area exposed rocks occupy 5% of the total area, then for the area, only 95% qualifies as a flat.

In regions of the world where the climactic temperatures were cool enough, permafrost occurred. In those regions, erosion was both slowed and mellowed by the resistance of mud below a certain depth, constantly hard with ice. Cell walls were later helped to stand by ice just beneath the surface. The presence of permafrost is the major contributor to the stability of the Flat after its oceanic release.

If you were to consider the world as it is today and to observe what regions are somewhat flat, like Nebraska, there remains a vast set of areas whose primary means of formation was the oceans. The map of Asia reveals millions of square kilometers that are flat. Every continent has great quantities of land that qualify as a portion of that set – or did at one time. Add to the statistic, that, for the sake of this viewpoint, it need only be shown that for the area in question, it have been subject to a receding sea as described above at any moment during its history.

The amount of survey is staggering. Many areas underwent this type of change many times, qualifying them repeatedly in this category; of areas that do not fall within the set, most are those which have yet to emerge from the sea. The survey is almost ungoverned with respect to time, since the set of all possible moments begins with the oceans.

Even though the world’s total area of existing flat has diminished to about one percent or less than the set of all flats in all significant moments, a map of Asia or North America, whose northern regions appear as likely places to find flats in the climate briefly described in Part I, reveals millions of square kilometers of area. Every continent has these regions, and the current total area that appears to have been formed by receding oceans is many millions of square miles. By combining the ability to choose any sequential set of moments from millions of years, and areas from millions of square miles, I hypothesize many things:


Since the set of all areas within the study is so vast, the material resident in the set of areas is so variable as to include virtually the set of all combinations and ratios. Each area of the flat endures changes during the set of all moments and its composition will change continuously during the set of all moments. This variation combines with the description of the set of all moments to infer that for a sample within the survey of compositions required at any moment during the sequence of moments containing the Lattice, an acceptable approximation of the sample exists within the set of moments and the set of areas which has been described.

To paraphrase the above, the reader is to accept that the presence of such a large amount of flat area which is being observed for so many years results in the very strong possibility that the right combination of materials did occur in only one specific area to produce a life-forming change within the area. Further, to produce life where there was none calls for materials to be introduced to the area in proper timing as well as in the correct ratios for the continuation of the Lattice.


The set of all areas of flat, within the set of all moments since the recession of the seas, contains samples from every latitude and longitude, and virtually every combination of the two on Earth. If a certain area within the set of flats does not have a receding ocean for one moment, it may satisfy the condition during another. It is inferred that for any sample of climactic variation required for the continuum of the Lattice, there existed an historical area that maintains an acceptable approximation of that climate.


Within the set of areas of flat, a subset occurs in every latitude. Thus, for the set of all moments since the seas, there existed a flat for which, during any moment, the solar angle was within acceptable approximation of the angle required to maintain the Lattice.

I have tried to show that within the realm of requirements for the advent of cellular life, those regarding the Sun, climate, and composition are nearly assured within the millions of years available in which to survey millions of areas – billions actually. The attempt is to create a theoretical environment that encourages your speculation by asserting that there is virtually every combination of these three factors which once occurred. Of course it should be understood that since the subject is limited (the advent of cells), the set of requirements you will choose to place on the Lattice is limited, forming much of the Lattice themselves.

Also, since the final form of the Lattice requires that the set of sequences, the set of climates, the set of solar contributions, and very many other factors had to have all occurred during a set of real moments and in a real area, to statistically demonstrate the occurrence will require all of this survey’s breadth in which to locate that one area in which the advent of cellular life most probably occurred.

One of the conclusions I drew very early in the going was that the tidal pool concept was not very appealing. In itself, it is a great learning model, but as I see it, those tidal pools were too unstable. I imagine that if any products were created by the process, one good wave would dilute them beyond usefulness. Also, the climate they handed me was wrong for the same reason – no stability. The heat of direct tropical Sun optimizes energy usage during the day, with dramatic thermal delta at night. In itself that aspect of fluctuation was appealing, until I realized that to optimize the shift between night and day, it need involve a change of state – for water to cycle into ice or gas.

Negatively impacting the tropical argument were the equatorial Sun-driven storms that would dissipate any efforts toward accumulation of compounds, scattering the manufactured products of the tidal pools to uselessness. My point of view was skewed by the prospect of the existence of another climate, which among other things had the potential of maintaining an area intact for thousands of centuries, rather than the few decades in which a tropical region maintains the same stability quotient. It can be demonstrated that, in a different climate, a regional cell set could exist in the integrity of corporeal state manifest in the tropics’ sample for one decade within the set of all moments, for the mean period lasting five or ten centuries.

It is my viewpoint that if everything were ideal – as it was for one region of flat somewhere on the globe, ‘life’ arrived within earthen cells that are the Flat, and that the process could have seen beyond a million sunrises with no significant change to the corporate set of cells. The model provides the facet of survival needed for life to have a chance – stability as the organism’s own systems assume the task. The Lattice also permits both unicellular and multiple-cell approaches toward life to cohabit, and thrives on intercellular dependence during this stage, which sets a course for the entire history of life on Earth.


Those of you who have visited a mud hole or a larger, slowly drying region like the Bonneville Salt Flats can observe mud cracking. As moisture departs, the mud is forced apart into fairly uniform patches of surface, separated by cracks which isolate each patch from the rest. Though these patches show great similarity to those around them, it is important to note that each has individual shape and area. A key issue to understanding is that each patch is a statistical entity, unlike any other in the survey of the world’s entire set of patches in size, latitude, and shape. Also included in this unique patch is the composition of the mud which it is formed.

A facet of these patches not commonly noted is that, as it dries, its edges tend to curl upward, elevating a rim of material when compared to its center. The design is an elegant manner of producing a natural Petrie dish (or watch glass) on a flat surface, separate from thousands or millions of additional Petrie dishes.

For a given area, if the parameters of flatness include the curling of the edges of the individual patches for every patch in the survey, then the amount of “flat” available within the mudhole would be the accumulated surface area of the patches minus the surface area occupied by the cracks between. For the Lattice model of the Flat, the same perspective will be used on regions that constitute thousands of square kilometers, with available flat to be representative of the total area within the region not occupied by ravines and rock formations.

This model forms a nearly ideal sample set, with individual samples adjacent and covering entire regions of flats. Water can circulate within the cracks between without coming into direct contact with the contents of individual patches, and light rain would not disturb the physical device. Since the region was flat, heavy rain would have dissolved the patches, only to have them reform in virtually the same design. For seasonal flooding of the flats, after the drying process recurs, the patches are again established. I present the mudhole concept to express both the approach of the theory and that for environmental parameters, the theoretical model’s window can extend into the climactic regions where it is warmer than I believe the actual window to be, which is into regions where freezing is not a major contributor to pothole geometry. It is my view that after the model’s initialization, the mudhole environment may have hosted or fed the higher forms.

A flat that contains the quantitative values within the set of parameters will be described further as having a somewhat varying composition of shape and size particles to form packed structures. Over the years of formation, rain and Sun combine to smooth the topography until it is flat. Those of you who have seen the Bonneville Salt Flats can begin to get a feel for the concept: plains stretching miles between major land features.

Bonneville has endured primarily as a function of its ratio of crystalline structure, yet in the past there have been numerous areas with the same appearance, but more supportive of life. One of these started the ball rolling.

Flats distribute water virtually evenly in all directions, thus eliminating moving water as a major topographic force. As the sea moves away, pits fill and wind-blown mounds settle in time, which leaves a muddy uniformity. What becomes of the flat is a matter of climate. In those flats receiving little annual moisture, the mud eventually dries to from a hard surface.

For flooded areas of continuous flat in excess of one square kilometer, lateral pressures of any water body are negated by molecular cohesion. I assert that for any flat in which resides any area whose other requirements meet the experimental needs of the Lattice, then the quantitative result of that smaller area’s activity is not limited to its topography in the flat. This means that the internal activity of the development on the flats is not limited by increasing area.

A puddle whose materials settle and dry throughout the set of moments will acquire some form of these crack-separated patches. The patches in an everyday puddle get to an average size measuring in centimeters or inches, yet can be significantly smaller. Larger versions of more than a meter or two square are not common. I assert that the unit area described in the set of patches resides in the range of less than ten meters square. Up until now I have been discussing a set of regions that expressed itself in millions of square kilometers – one thousand meters x one thousand meters multiplied by 10EE6. Within each square kilometer resides at least 10EE4 patches. That, multiplied out yields at least 10EE10 discrete patches within the set of a million square kilometers, which is only a thousand kilometers on one of four equal sides. Asia has at least one of those today, as does every continent on Earth. Just as importantly, the flats have existed since the recession of the seas.

These gross parameters encounter all latitudes and climates, and serve the Lattice in delimiting the set of all areas that satisfy the remaining requirements for the Lattice. During past eras there were possibly hundreds of times the area of flats we can now observe. As the scientist’s parameter for average patch size diminishes below the given ten meters square, the quantity of samples within an area increases geometrically. My model has a smaller patch (cell) than the above ten meters square, and resides in a cold climate.


This model begins in a colder region of the globe for a sampled set of moments. A phenomenon occurs described as follows:

Within an area, a set of moisture depressions is formed and contains precipitation, condensation, and standing water. Atmospheric cooling solidifies the water, and the ice performs work on the materials, grinding and crushing them, pushing its boundaries away. When the area is melted, the denser suspended material settles into the surrounding material. The pushing and settling of materials leaves more room for water. If the freeze/thaw cycle continues, shallow puddles appear and continue to grow within the confines of physics. In this manner the colder regions acquired their set of patches (cells).

Those of us who have lived in colder climates and ride in vehicles recognize this concept as a pothole. These vehicles remove much of the material, but the action of freezing and thawing softens areas to permit removal more readily. In the Lattice the requirement is that freezing-thawing activity be capable of performing work upon a set of areas and increasing the probable formation of the cells. I assert that the creation of life occurred in this environment.

A factor in the Lattice is a wall between cells which is self maintaining. As the freeze/thaw process expands the cell, boundaries of adjacent cells grow closer. Some join and continue to expand while others push an opposing wall toward each other. If enough conditions were within the acceptable values for the Lattice, then as the ice pushed material and compressed it between two cells, the material that was thrust vertically would collapse under its weight during the next thaw, falling at the base of the wall. At the next freeze, the material would again start its cycle up the sides of the wall, pushed by the newly formed ice.

Of that which this phenomenon contributes to the Lattice, is the opportunity within the set of flats in colder areas, for walling cells to be maintained, and fitting those requirements of discrete and adjacent existence described above for warmer climates. The cell wall/barrier is maintained with an elevation above the top surface of the cell – it can hold water, and as a group, with the wall elevation accepted as the range of acceptable elevation, they constitute a flat.

Since the flat is two-dimensional, more than two adjacent cells will form mutual walls. The hyperbola is that the entire set of areas that is contained in the flat could be covered by uniformly sized cells, separated by earthen walls with a limited range of thickness. About ten years ago I viewed a photo in a magazine which depicted such a field. It resembled a well-weathered honeycomb that stretched for kilometers to the base of a mountain. I think that this observed field in the photo establishes a continuity of presence within a survey that includes the set of all moments since the seas for the existence of such cells, and that their accumulated activity has resulted in extremely large areas whose flat is either cell pool or cyclic process maintained intercellular wall.

Please note how climate figures here. Freeze/thaw makes no description of time or severity. It shows no reference to transition or consistency. It states that within a set of sequential moments, a thaw occurred, followed by a freeze, which was followed by a thaw, etc. thus the significance of time is theoretically removed from the individual cell. In some ways the earthen cell changes very little if it is frozen for one year or one hundred. If there was an area of flat which thawed only for one day in every hundred years, it may change very little in a million years.

Climate determines how rapidly change occurs for the set of all areas. For a set of cells which became life or contributed to the advent of life (hence called ‘successful cells’) there will be a description of climactic parameters and sequence for the continuation of the Lattice. I assert that within the set of all moments since the seas there resides a set of moments which is in continuity today within which an acceptable combination of climate and sequence of conditions for the maintenance of the Lattice began.

The location of the flat determines the contributions provided by its surroundings. The most appealing location for the flat would be at the base of a mountain range which would give the flat shelter from the more random elements of climate, and at the same time provides nutrients, renewing the flat content after every rain.

Altitude is not an advantage for the receipt of nutrients from moving water. As a survey of flats is proposed higher within any area, its access to the entire set of chemical elements diminishes. What materials washed down from the base of the mountain would not move across the flat above them. To further diversify the distribution of chemical elements and the diversity of ratio and sequence, a flat would be located between two mountains, receiving contributions from separate sources of varying materials.

As I imagine the Flat, the perspective is from the top of an adjacent mountain. I see the water from rains and spring thaws bringing nutrients down to the valley floor. Water reaches a mountain’s base to enter the Flat from point sources at the edges, spaced at random around the perimeter. Each source varies in volume, but since the climate of the region affects the set of enclosing mountains, the ratios between contributions from the set of streams remains quite uniform: a rainy season washes down more material from all the mountains and generally causes the activity to occur simultaneously from all of them.

Once at the Flat, the rushing water is halted, dropping its material and forming a delta. I imagine the deltas progressing outward across the Flat, each colored by its unique combination of material, until it blends its contents with those of the other deltas and loses even more of its material. The Flat probably had a large number of deltas of a large variety of materials. This provided the opportunity for virtually every combination of the set of deltas to occur within the set of its cells, which is another part of the theory:

For the set of cells which resides within the set of flats, the set of combinations of material and the sequence for the deposition of those combinations is a large survey, and thus the occurrence of the correct materials within the correct sequence for the maintenance of the Lattice is statistically significant for all moments of the Lattice.

Consider such a flat which is found to be four square kilometers. If the survey were to study cells which were half a meter across or less, the survey would be a grid of eight thousand elements by eight thousand elements. Each of those elements (cells) would contain a unique ratio of all the materials provided to the survey area. A similar survey of a thousand square kilometers nets two million elements. For surveys of the actual amount of available flat, the set of cells is significant.

I assert that as the environment changed, adaptability eventually involved the opportunity to move as a corporate entity throughout a single flat, or to travel to an adjacent flat. Gravity supplied that opportunity, dumping the ‘soup’ that was the successful cells of a higher elevation flat of one significant era to advent a new era within new geography, warmer climate, more stable flat. In the time taken for the cells to reach the ocean, for some material, much modification had been done.

The occurrence is described as opportunity to include within the concept of the Flat, that it may reside for more than one moment on two or more distinctly different elevations and conditions, related by water’s flow with gravity, seasonality of winds, and what lay in the flat above. Physically, the relationship between the topography of the distinctive flats indicates for a large part, how the activities in the set of flats that is momentarily the Flat, change throughout the time.

My viewpoint on the climactic conditions is supported by the density of life in the coldest portions of the world’s oceans. Only a few years ago, scientists bored down through twenty-four feet of ice in Antarctica, and found a fresh water lake teaming with micro-organisms which see no sun, thriving in near-frozen water. They may be Earth’s most direct descendant of the first life form. In the coldest regions, the most numerous of species are found, the largest variety of species is found, the largest animal swims and the largest carnivore for both land and sea is found. Large oil reserves reside at both poles, evidence of activity.

Table of Contents   Chapter Three  (hyperlinks to be added)

Advertisement: I am a Capitalist. If you feel you received something of value in reading this article, please buy a copy or many copies as gifts of my science-fiction e-novel,

The Boson Maru

The novel explains the early exploration of our Solar System. It contains no cursing and no sex, with brief military combat violence. There is brief nudity, not related to sex. Heroes are equally of both genders. The Boson Maru is available through as an electronic book (e-book). Thank you for your patronage.


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s